Make usability expert reviews more quickly with Capian.

Start your free trial

Opquast Web Quality Checklist: Best Practices and Recommendations
Authors: Elie Solïm & Laurent Denis

Introduction

Opquast means Open Quality Standards. The project has been launched in 2004. The goal of the projet is to improve the quality of the Web by writing and publishing simple, checkable, realistic, universal and transversal checklists. The current page presents our main publication, the Opquast Web quality checklist.

All the best practices of this page are placed under a creative commons CC-BY-SA licence.

BEST PRACTICES

1. Each decorative image has an appropriate text alternative.

To prevent users in environments where images are not seen (text browsers, screen readers or browsers with the images disabled) from being bothered by information about images that are unimportant to them.

To provide only pertinent information to web crawlers.

2. Each decorative image link has an appropriate text alternative.

To allow users in environments where images are not seen (text browsers, screen readers or browsers with the images disabled) to understand the meaning of the links attached to images that they cannot see.

To enable bots to exploit the information carried by the image links (to reference, index and perform machine translation on the image text alternatives).

To enable the display of relevant text while images are loading.

3. Each information-carrying image has an appropriate text alternative.

To allow users in environments where images are not seen (text browsers, screen readers or browsers with the images disabled) to understand the meaning of the images that they cannot see.

To enable bots to exploit the information carried by the images (to reference, index and perform machine translation on the image text alternatives).

To enable the display of relevant text while images are loading.

4. Included objects have an appropriate text alternative.

To provide access to the information to users whose browsers or platforms don’t support the inclusion of objects or the technologies used by the included objects.

To facilitate the exploitation of that content by bots (especially web crawlers).

To simplify the presentation and/or reuse of the included content.

5. Content managed by styles has an appropriate alternative.

To ensure access to the content, regardless of whether or not the CSS formatting layer is handled.

To allow content to be reused on media and platforms that do not handle formatting for on-screen display.

To give users in environments where styles are not reproduced (text browsers, screen readers or browsers with the images disabled) access to information that takes the form of CSS-generated content(particularly background images).

To enable bots to exploit the information carried by CSS styles (to reference, index and perform machine translation on the alternatives).

6. Typographic symbols have an appropriate alternative.

To enable users in environments where the CSS fonts used to display symbols are not reproduced (text browsers, screen readers or browsers with the images disabled) to understand the meanings of those symbols.

To enable bots to exploit the information carried by those symbols (to reference, index and perform machine translation on the alternatives).

7. All audio and video content is accompanied by a text transcription.

To give users unable to perceive the proposed sound or image to access a text transcription as an alternative.

To give users unable to hear the sound to access the information contained in the video.

To enable bots to exploit the information, in order to improve its indexing and referencing, or to translate it using online language tools.

8. Information is not conveyed by color alone.

To give users whose browser, platform, technical aid or disability (likecolor-blindness) prevents them from viewing or differentiating between colors access to the information.

To make the information accessible by web crawlers.

9. Audio captchas can be replayed at will.

To facilitate access to content and services that are protected by captchas, for users that cannot see the graphic captchas.

To facilitate the use of audio captchas.

10. Captchas are accompanied by an alternative access solution.

To give users with difficulty taking captcha tests, especially graphic ones, access to the protected content or services by alternative means.

11. Each page’s source code begins with a document type declaration (doctype or DTD), whose syntax is one of those recommended by W3C.

To simplify source-code validation.

To foster a rendering that is predictable on all browsers (browser versions still in circulation may rely on the precise syntax of the DTD to adopt a CSS rendering mode).

12. Each HTML ID is only used once per page.

To prevent content reproduction errors and interaction errors via scripts

To limit the risk of random interpretation of the Document Object Model (DOM) by different user agents.

13. Each page’s content is organized according to a hierarchical structure of headings and sub-headings.

To allow interested users to view and navigate through the structure of the page’s content.

To enable machines and indexing tools to extract each page’s map

To improve SEO by simplifying the content’s interpretation by web crawlers.

14. The site does not force any redirects or auto-refreshes on the client side.

To allow users to maintain control over their work environments.

To prevent cut-offs or losses of information while reading, particularly for users with screen readers whose functions would be interrupted by a timed refresh or redirect.

To not penalize mobile users trying to access content when their network signal is variable over short periods of time.

To prevent unwanted increases in the cost to users of using mobile data.

15. Dates are presented in an explicit format.

To prevent users from misinterpreting the meaning of a date

To simplify the comprehension and reuse of the relevant content

16. Navigation blocks are located in the same place in every page’s source code.

To facilitate memorization of the pages’ organization and navigation for users with screen readers and users who navigate by keyboard.

17. The character encoding is UTF-8.

To use an international character set

To prevent display faults

To simplify content manipulation by users and developers

18. Each page’s source code contains metadata that define the character set used.

To display pages offline correctly, by telling the browser which character set was used.

Toprevent the risk of character display problems associated with the sometimes unsure functioning of browsers’ catch-up mechanisms when they don’t receive the necessary information from the HTTP content-type header.

19. Content that should be reproduced by screen readers is not hidden from them.

To ensure the correct reproduction of masked content to be read by screen readers.

20. The content and meaning of each page are not altered when styles are disabled.

To allow users whose browsers don’t apply the website’s style sheets or whose method of access is not visible to understand the site’s content.

To meticulously separate the content from its presentation, to foster interoperability

21. Elements that are visually displayed as lists are tagged in an appropriate way in the source code.

To enable browsers and technical aids to identify lists and then reproduce them accurately, in order to facilitate their understanding by users.

To improve the semantics of page content and its reusability

22. Text that can be formatted using styles is not replaced by images.

To facilitate the rendering’s adaptation to the medium (mobile or other) or to the user’s needs (increasing the characters’ size, changing the colors, the font,the bolding, the alignment, etc.).

23. The first occurrence of an abbreviation or an acronym in the body of any page provides an explanation of its meaning.

To allow users to quickly understand the meaning of an acronym

To enable bots to exploit the content (inorder to establish an index of abbreviations).

To foster referencing of the content

24. Each page’s source code contains no elements that were misused for presentational purposes.

To enable the correct exploitation of the course code by user agents (browsers,search engine web crawlers, Braille terminals, etc.).

To simplify the source code, by remoting the formatting to CSS

25. Each page's source code does not contain any presentational tag or attribute

To foster the adaptation of content formatting by user agents, depending on the user’s needs.

To simplify the pages’ source code, by encouraging the pooling and outsourcing of formatting information by means of CSS.

To simplify the unconstrained reuse of content associated with its initial formatting

26. The site provides at least one means of contact.

To facilitate feedback from users

To encourage trust by guaranteeing, from the outset, that users have an option in the case of any problems.

27. The site provides at least two means of contact.

To optimize options for users to provide feedback

To avoid putting a user in a difficult position, if one of the means of contact is unavailable or causing problems to the user.

28. Mail and phone information for companies’ and organizations’ local branches or headquarters are provided.

To identify the entity responsible for the content and the services.

To provide an alternative means of contact.

29. Every information request submitted produces an acknowledgment of receipt.

To inform users that their requests have been received

To give users a confirmation of receipt of their request for information, which they can save.

30. Response times are provided for information requests.

To give users a quantified timeframe for a response

To limit the risk of follow-up by users

To reassure users about the site managers’ ability to respond to requests

31. The data in the site’s WHOIS information allow users to connect it with its owner.

To simplify identification of the person or entity responsible for the content or the services.

To allow users to confirm that they are on the right website and not on a phishing site, for example.

32. Each page provides a title that enables one to identify the site

To allow users to immediately identify the website in tabs, favorites, windows, browser histories, and screen readers.

To improve the site’s SEO and its presentation in search engine results

33. Each page provides a title that enables one to identify its content

To allow users to immediately identify the nature of each page’s content in tabs, favorites, windows, browser histories, and screen readers.

To improve the pages’ SEO and their presentation in search engine results

34. Advertisements and sponsored content are identified as such.

To enable the immediate identification of advertisements and sponsored content

To avoid confusion between editorial and advertising content

To prevent the risks associated with conflicts of interest

35. Information about copyrights and reuse rights can be accessed from every page.

To inform the users of the conditions under which the content is published

To inform the users of the conditions for copying and reusing the content

36. The site provides a way for users to find out about new content and services.

To enable users to immediately identify new online content and services.

37. If the site provides a personal space (or a subscriber space), personal content can be backed up in a standard format.

To enable user-generated content to be archived

To avoid the user having to re-enter data, in the event of their reuse of content

38. A lexicon or a glossary adapted to the target audience explains the industry-specific or technical vocabulary used.

To allow users to understand industry-specific and technical content

To simplify use of a service

To improve SEO on keywords or technical expressions

39. A product or service can be purchased without creating an account.

To allow buyers top lace an order immediately

To remove the barrier of account creation

To increase the conversion rate

40. No additional products or services are added to the shopping cart without a customer action.

To give users control over their orders

To not compromise your trusted relationship with your users

To avoid any form of forced sales

41. Product availability is shown before final order placement.

To anticipate any possible difficulties and delivery delays

42. The estimated delivery date is shown before final order placement.

To allow users to plan ahead for the conditions and means of accessing the service or the virtual item.

To avoid disappointments and complaints.

43. The method for retrieving a virtual item is explained before order placement.

To allow users to plan ahead for the conditions and means of accessing the service or the virtual item.

To avoid disappointments and complaints

44. Users can still modify each item’s quantity, and add or delete one or more items, as long as the order has not definitively been placed.

To allow users to easily edit their orders

45. The nature and quantifiable characteristics of products and services are provided.

To allow users to identify the exact nature and specifications of the products

46. The period of validity and conditions of special offers and promotions are indicated.

To allow users to identify the period during which they can enjoy special offers.

47. The company’s or organization’s legal registration number, issued in its home country, is provided.

To give users a verifiable indication of the official existence of the structure offering the content or services.

48. The detailed sub-total is indicated before final order placement.

To provide users withdetails of the prices of their orders

To remove an obstacle to order placement

49. Financing conditions are indicated.

To allow users to identify the total amount they will have to pay and how that amount breaks down.

50. Customer support service conditions (prices, hours, means of contact, etc.) are provided.

To inform users about the conditions for obtaining assistance and support, if they need it

51. Debit and charge conditions are explained before final order placement.

To enable users to identify the detailed payment charge conditions

52. Warranty conditions are specified.

To enable users to identify the specific nature of the associated services and their costs.

53. The terms of sale and use can be accessed from every page.

To provide continuous, easy access to all of the terms and conditions of fulfillment of the service

54. Information is provided about the products or services delivery zones.

To avoid pointless browsing and orders, or even a waste of time for your users and for the organization that is offering the goods or services.

55. The accepted payment methods and their associated procedures are indicated.

To give users advance notice of the payment methods and conditions, so they will know whether or not they are able to place an order.

56. The hours and prices for the services offered to customers are listed.

To inform users of the services that are available to them and how they work.

57. Dispute procedures are explained in the general terms of sale or use.

To reassure users before they make a purchase

To give buyers all of the relevant information related to their purchases, whether or not everything goes well.

58. The address and the terms and conditions for returns (on-site, at the workshop, etc.) are provided.

To allow users to plan ahead in case of any problems with the use and/or operation of the good or service.

To reduce the strain on customer service

59. The procedure for submitting a complaint and for how it will be handled is explained.

To allow users to understand or anticipate any problems they may encounter on the website or during a transaction.

60. The conditions for getting a refund are explained.

To allow users to identify the exact documents required, if they need to return a product.

To anticipate potential problems, in the case of a refund request submitted afterthe statutory cooling-off period.

To reduce the number of needless procedures and the number of customer service requests

To increase an e-commerce site’s conversion rate

61. The hardware and software required for the service to run are provided before final order placement.

To allow users to anticipate the conditions and means of use of the service

To reduce complaints

62. The displayed prices show the applied taxes and any additional charges, as well as tax-exclusive prices.

To allow users to identify the precise total amount they will have to pay, before placing an order.

To enable users to accurately identify any deductible amounts and the different itemizations.

63. Different shipping and billing addresses can be specified.

To allow users to have their purchases delivered to the location of their choice

64. The website accepts at least two payment methods.

To allow users to choose their preferred payment method in their specific situation.

To offer at least one alternative to users temporarily or permanently unable to use a particular payment method.

65. The transaction’s reference number is displayed to the customer, once the order has been placed.

To allow users to see and, potentially, printout a trace of their orders.

To give users written proof of the transaction

To improve the traceability of transactions

66. Any mention of an affiliation with a professional association, or endorsement by a label or an award, features a link to the source.

To give users immediate access, so they can understand what those mentions mean.

To enable users to check the information themselves

To increase the level of trust or credibility

67. Unavailable products are differentiated by visual and textual means.

To allow users to immediately identify products that are unavailable, with no possibility of confusion.

To avoid disappointment of when a user starts a purchase, only to discover later on that the product they want is not available.

68. An email providing the transaction’s reference number and the order details is sent after order placement.

To give users confirmation of their order information

To allow users to keep a history of their transactions, elsewhere than on the website.

69. Every complaint submitted produces an acknowledgment of receipt.

To give users confirmation of their requests, outside the context of the website.

To avoid customer service receiving multiple requests for the same complaint

70. The site provides at least one means of contacting the person in charge of complaints.

To allow users to reach out to or send their complaints directly to the right person.

To reassure users that they can easily interact with the complaint department, in the event of a problem.

71. The site provides at least one means of contacting the moderator of public spaces.

To allow users to contact the moderator, so they can request corrections, ask questions or report abuse.

72. Public spaces offer at least one way to report abuse.

To simplify reporting of illegal or inappropriate content

To speed up the detection of such content

To limit the risk of accessing illegal or inappropriate content

73. The conditions for moderation of public spaces are explained.

To explain to the users why and how their posts may be moderated.

To reduce the number of complaints from users who don’t see their posts online.

74. Content and files intended for public spaces can be checked before upload.

To allow users to check their input in context and, if necessary, to correct it before submitting it.

To reduce the number of correction and removal requests

75. Information intended for spaces can be previewed in their final form.

To allow users to check and, if necessary, correct their input, account taken of the final layout of the content.

To reduce the number of correction and removal requests

76. The length of video and audio content is displayed.

To inform users, so they can decide whether ornot to play or download the content, with full knowledge of the facts.

77. The format of downloadable files is displayed.

To let users know, in a timely manner, whether their tools will allow them to view the downloadable files.

To reduce server load by avoiding needless downloads

78. The size of downloadable files is displayed.

To provide advancenotice to the users on the quantity of data that will be downloaded, as a preventive measure

To allow users to wait to download the file over a low-speed or mobile connection

79. The language of downloadable files is mentioned, if not the same as on the original page.

To avoid pointless downloads for users

To inform users about the files they’re going to download

80. Animations, sounds and blinking can be paused.

To give the user control over animation when viewing content

To not distract the user’s attention by forcing elements on them that might annoy them

To allow sequential animations and sound content to be accessed step by step

81. Running animation does not block access to navigation or content.

To give users direct, immediate access to the content, even when the webmaster has decided

To include animation or an ad beforehand.

82. Sound and video are launched by the user.

To give the user control over the visual and auditory interface when visiting a website.

To not surprise the user by unexpectedly playing audio content

To not impose the playback of animated content on the user

83. The text of internal PDF documents can be selected.

To enable the referencing of the contents of PDF documents

To simplify the handling and reuse of the contents of PDF documents

To ensure the readability of the contents of PDF documents

84. Internal PDF documents are given a structure based on headings.

To give users direct access to the different sections of a PDF file

To provide a structure of headings to users who need that

To allow PDFs to be read using a technical aid

85. In the source code, each field in the form is associated with a label that is specific to it.

To facilitate the understanding of the data expected in forms

To allow technical accessibility aids torender the fields in forms by systematically attaching a label to them, indicating their role and the nature of the expected input.

To simplify input by allowing users to select the field by clicking on either its label or the field itself (especially in the case of a checkbox or a radio button).

86. Information supplementing a field’s label is associated with that field in the source code.

To optimize the rendering on screen readers, by making it possible to spell out the form’s field labels.

87. Each form field’s label indicates whether or not it is a required field.

To tell users in advance whether or not a field is required

To prevent mistakes before they are made

88. Each form field’s label indicates the required data format, if any.

To reduce the risk of input errors

To reduce the risks associated with sending incorrect or unusable data

To prevent the user from giving up, for lack of information about the expected input

89. The user is warned whenever a field is case-sensitive.

To prevent the risk of mistakes and, as a result, prevent the user from having to fill out the same field several times.

To prevent confusion in users who think they correctly completed the field, but see it marked as an error.

90. There is an input error prevention mechanism for user password creation.

To prevent users from entering passwords that don’t match the ones that they wanted or that they memorized.

91. The characters entered in a password field can be displayed in clear text.

To simplify password entry, especially on mobile devices’ virtual keyboards.

To prevent mistakes

92. Every form label is visually attached to the field that it describes.

To allow users to unambiguously identify the form’s fields and the type of information they are expected to input.

To prevent input errors

To simplify and speed up use of the form, especially on a mobile device or for users of screen magnifiers and, more generally, for any user employing the zoom function.

93. If any data entered in the form are rejected, the fields containing the rejected data are highlighted for the user.

To provide feedback to users on the actions they just performed

To guide users directly to the items with which they must interact

94. If any data entered in the form are rejected, the reason(s) why are explained to the user.

To help users understand what is expected and, by doing so, facilitate their progression to the next step.

To prevent user frustration in the face of mistakes for which they don’t have an immediate solution.

95. If any data entered in the form are rejected, the user can change any of the input data.

To give users control over all of the information that they provide

To simplify the correction of mistakes made by users

To allow users to edit the information they want to change

To prevent the user from leaving the form before it is submitted

96. For forms divided over several pages, an overall summary is displayed before the final version is submitted.

To give users an overview of what they entered on the previous pages

To allow users to reviews all of the information for a complex procedure, before submitting it.

97. The page displayed after the form’s submission allows the user to return to their navigation directly.

To avoid putting your users off by taking them to a dead-end page, including by means of the browser’s“ Previous page” function.

To limit the risk of duplicate form submissions

98. Form submission is followed by a message indicating whether or not the action was successful.

To give the user immediate, explicit feedback on the action they just performed

To prevent user frustration when they think the process was a success, but there was, in fact, a problem.

99. Complex processes are accompanied by a list of their steps.

To give users visibility of the actions they are going to be performing (time, order of steps, information required toc omplete them, etc.).

To prevent users from feeling trapped in a process that takes longer than expected.

100. The current step in a complex process is indicated.

To allow users to determine their progress in a process

To reassure users when engaged in a complex process

101. Each step in a complex process allows the user to go back to the previous step.

To simplify the use of forms divided over several pages in a row

To reduce the risk of input errors

To limit the risk of abandoning the process

102. The user is warned that they will lose information if they go back using their browser’s history during a complex process.

To simplify the use of forms divided over several pages in a row

To limit the risk of abandoning the process

103. Navigating through a complex process does not cause any previously-submitted data to be lost.

To simplify input and corrections in forms divided into multiple steps

To limit the risk of abandoning the procedure

104. Copy-and-paste is possible in the form’s fields.

To simplify form completion

105. The items in a drop-down list are grouped together appropriately, where applicable.

To allow technical aids to return a list to the user whose organization is clear to see, and that simplifies moving from one item on the list to another.

To foster the accurate rendering of complex drop-down lists in every browser

106. The lists of form options are presented in an identifiable order.

To give users fast access to the item they want in a list

107. Each link has a proper label in the source code.

To prevent users from only having a hard-to-understand URL as a label

To avoid links that become invisible when CSS styles or background images are not handled.

108. Underlining cannot be used for elements other than hyperlinks.

To prevent pointless clicking on underlined content perceived as hyperlinks

To simplify the identification of links

109. Hyperlinks are visually differentiated from the rest of the content.

To allow users to easily identify links in the text, as well as navigation blocks.

To improve the visibility and affordance of links in different browsing environments

110. The site applies a different style to visited and unvisited links.

To facilitate the identification of content that has already been visited

To facilitate the identification of content that has yet to be explored

To encourage users to navigate to new pages

111. The site does not prohibit or restrict incoming links.

To facilitate referencing through backlinks

To increase the site’s visibility to users

112. Hovering over, or activating, hyperlinks does not alter the page layout.

To limit problems clicking on a link when it takes up more space when hovered over or activated.

To reduce the flickering or shifting of content when hovering over a link or using keyboard focus on it.

113. Hyperlinks of the same nature have identical colors, shapes and behaviors on all pages.

To accelerate user learning about how the interface works

To improve users’ identification of links and their respective functions

114. All hyperlinks internal to the site are valid.

To avoid 404 errors while browsing

To facilitate fast access to all of the content

115. Each hyperlink’s label describes either its function or the nature of its target.

To allow users to accurately identify the nature of the link and prevent incorrect actions.

To enable indexing tools to associate a label with a resource

To allow screen readers to explicitly indicate the target and, as a result, to prevent user disorientation.

116. Consecutive hyperlinks are separated visually.

To avoid confusion between two consecutive links

To improve the readability of links and content

117. Internal and external hyperlinks are differentiated.

To clearly inform users that they are about to leave the online service that they were visiting.

To facilitate the identification of external links

118. The identity of the author, the company or the organization is provided.

To reassure users, by allowing them to directly identify the author (in the broadest sense of the term)

To limit the risk of mistrust

119. The identity of the person or the service responsible for the content is provided.

To allow users to unambiguously identify a physical person capable of answering any questions about the available content or of assuming responsibility for that content.

120. The homepage explains the nature of the content and services on offer.

To give users an immediate view of the nature of the website and the content it offers.

To avoid needless searching

121. The name of the website and/or its author is displayed on every page.

To allow users to immediately and continuously identify the author, the entity administrating the website or the site itself, as the case may be.

122. If the site is reserved or intended for a specific audience, that audience is mentioned, at least on the homepage.

To avoid pointless visits

To give users a warning

123. The complete address and phone number of companies and organizations can be reached from all of the site’s pages.

To give interested users the possibility of easily accessing the entity’s telephone and mailing contact information.

124. The site’s root contains instructions for web crawlers.

To enable targeted referencing

To improve guidance for search tools

125. Each page’s source code contains metadata that describe the content.

To enable search and indexing tools to extract information about the pages’ content and, as a result, to improve the search results returned to users.

126. The source code of the pages contains a valid call to a favourite icon (“favicon”)

To improve the visual identification of the site and its pages

To facilitate identification in the browser and the favorites or bookmarks

To enable all browsers to display, call and, potentially, memorize the favicon.

127. The extension used is consistent with the entity’s identity, activities, geographical area or domain name.

To contribute to the immediate understanding of the site’s identity, activities or geographic area.

To improve users’ ability to memorize the website’s address and find it again, if they forget it.

128. The website provides a sitemap file listing the content to be crawled.

To provide summary information about all of the available content that is machine-readable.

The sitemap file indicates all of the content for major search engines to index. This is primarily useful for websites with great depth, like online catalogs of thousands of products, and sites whose content is hard to read in a linear fashion, like encyclopedias.

It is of little to no use for sites with just a few pages, although the file’s presence will not be harmful to them.

129. If the site claims to adhere to one or more standards or guidelines, a link is provided to each of them.

To simplify users’ understanding of the quality, accessibility and other rules applied to the website.

To increase confidence in the information provided on the website

130. The country code is provided for all phone numbers

To enable the immediate use of telephone contacts, regardless of the user’s environment.

131. The country is mentioned in all mailing addresses.

To allow users to immediately identify the country associated with the mailing address, unambiguously and without having to make use of other information (city/town, region, zip code or phone number) to determine it.

132. Each page’s source code specifies the content’s main language.

To cultivate content indexing by language

To facilitate machine translation

To enable correct reading of the content by a synthesized speech tool

133. The main language of a link’s target page is provided, if different from the original page.

To allow users and navigation tools to anticipate the change in language mid-navigation.

To prevent users from being taken to pages whose language they don’t understand

134. Each language change is indicated.

To enable technical aids to correctly interpret content expressed in another language.

To simplify the work of machine translation tools

To enable web crawlers to extract strings of characters in a given language

135. Links to translated versions point directly to the current page’s translation.

To provide direct, immediate access to translations of the current page

136. Links to equivalent versions of a page or site are written in the target language.

To allow users to immediately identify the relevant link

To make links that were specially created for a specific audience understandable

137. The server does not force redirects from the desktop version to the mobile version.

To leave the choice of version to the users and their own personal preferences

138. Users can switch between the website’s mobile and desktop versions from each page.

To allow users to choose the rendering mode that is the best suited to their preferences and their environments.

139. The website does not block the browser’s zoom functionalities.

To allow users to adapt the rendering to their needs or preferences, by means of the graphic zoom.

140. JavaScript alerts and modal pop-up windows inviting the user to install a mobile app only appear once each session.

To prevent the repetitive imposition of advertising

To simplify navigation on the website

To prevent any penalties from search engines

141. The promotion of a mobile app does not use either JavaScript alerts or modal pop-up windows.

To prevent the repetitive imposition of advertising

To simplify navigation on the website

To prevent any penalties from search engines

142. The website offers one or more mechanisms for adapting to mobile devices.

To facilitate access on mobile devices

To improve your positioning in web crawlers that take this criterion into account.

143. Email, URL, telephone, number, search, password, and date and time input fields are assigned an appropriate type.

To allow the use of virtual keyboards adapted to the different input modes on mobile devices.

To facilitate submission of the input data

144. Phone numbers can be enabled using the appropriate protocol.

To simplify the use of telephone numbers, particularly on mobile devices

145. Each iframe has its own description.

To allow for alternative renderings of iframes in the form of a correctly-labeled link to the included content.

146. The site does not use framesets.

To improve access and navigation for people with disabilities

To avoid problems with printing or favoriting

To improve referencing by avoiding indexing orphan pages

147. It is possible to go back to the homepage from any page.

To let users return to the homepage if they get disoriented

To identify the main link for accessing the site

148. The user is warned before new windows are opened.

To allow users to anticipate what will happen when a link is activated

To prevent users of technical aids from becoming disoriented when a new window opens, which is not always perceptible and which disrupts the use of the browsing history, in particular.

  1. Navigating the website does not open any pop-up windows.

To allow users to navigate the website without having to perform any particular actions during their navigation.

To prevent users of technical aids from becoming disoriented when a new window opens, which will not always be perceptible and which disrupts the use of the browsing history, in particular, or hides the main window on a screen reader.

150. Mechanisms for closing windows are visually attached to their content.

To reduce the time it takes to learn to use the interface

To speed up access to the content

To simplify navigation

151. Mechanisms for closing windows are immediately available.

To reduce the time it takes to learn to use the interface

To speed up access to the content

To reduce the bounce rate

152. New windows that are specially sized and modal windows are all equipped with explicit close buttons.

To give users explicit information

To speed up access to the content

153. Mechanisms for closing windows are shown in the same location on every page.

To reduce the time it takes to learn to use the interface

To speed up access to the content

To simplify navigation

154. The site does not resize the browser window.

To let users control their browsers and their viewing interfaces

To not disorient or surprise them with an unexpected change to those

155. Keyboard focus has not been removed or masked.

To allow navigation using the keyboard or input devices or other mechanisms that are not reliant on the mouse.

156. The site can be navigated in its entirety using only a keyboard.

To allow keyboard navigation for users with a preference for that practice.

To allow content to be accessed and services to be used, regardless of the input device, so as to make them accessible by users of technical aids (screenreaders, for example) who only utilize the keyboard or a more specific device based on the same mechanisms as a keyboard (like a push button)

157. Keyboard navigation is set up in a predictable order.

To enable keyboard navigation

To not put off the user

158. The site does not contain any links to pages under construction.

To prevent users from useless clicking

To reduce the needless consumption of bandwidth

To offer value-added content

159. Each page displays information as to where it is located in the site’s tree structure.

To let users identify their location on the website

To simplify scanning by search engines

To facilitate navigation of the content tree

160. The site offers an internal search engine.

To provide users with an alternative navigation solution and fast access to the content associated with the keywords.

161. The search result page indicates the number of results, the number of pages of results, and the number of results per page.

To give users access to all of the essential information related to the search that they ran.

162. Each search result page can be reached by means of a web address.

To allow users to share search results or share them as a bookmark.

163. The site map can be reached from every page.

To provide users with a solution, in case they become disoriented, for navigating and getting their bearings within the site and for viewing all of the contents and the size of the site.

To encourage content managers to provide graphic representations and streamline their content.

164. Navigation blocks of the same nature are in the same place on every page.

To facilitate users’ learning of how to navigate the interface

To simplify the identification of information

165. Navigation icons are provided with explicit legends.

To reduce the time it takes to learn to use the interface

To facilitate your users’ understanding of the icons

To reduce the risk of error

166. Links to external software have an explicit label.

To avoid the unexpected launch of software other than the web browser on the client workstation

167. If the site is not restricted to a specific public, its content can be accessed directly.

To allow users to immediately start navigating on the resource they requested.

168. Each page provides skip links at the beginning of its source code.

To allow users visiting the pages in a linear fashion (in voice mode) or a semi-linear way (on a small screen) to not have to scroll through all of each page’s elements in order to access the content.

To provide shortcuts that accelerate keyboard navigation and that avoid the repetition of keyboard actions in order to browse through the page and get to the zone they want.

169. An unsubscribe link is provided in each newsletter.

To allow subscribers to stop receiving a newsletter

170. Unsubscribing from within the newsletter does not require email confirmation.

To not force an extra step on the users when not necessarily in that context

171. Subscribing to newsletters is subject to a confirmation process.

To prevent third parties from subscribing someone else to a newsletter

To check that the email address was input correctly

172. It is possible to unsubscribe from newsletters from the website.

To allow users to unsubscribe, without necessarily having to send out an email

173. The latest edition of the newsletter is available online.

To give users an idea of the newsletter that is sent out to subscribers

To allow users to access the newsletter outside the constraints of email

To boost your content’s referencing

174. Newsletter archives are available online.

To simplify the consultation of your archived newsletters

To give users an idea of the newsletter that is sent out to subscribers

To boost your content’s referencing

175. The newsletters’ frequency can be found before subscribing.

To tell users, before they sign up, how often they can expect to receive the newsletter

176. The design is consistent throughout the site.

To ensure consistency and continuity while visiting and navigating

To provide continuous identification of the visited online service

177. The display font size is expressed in variable units, not fixed units.

To allow users with browsers that don’t support the enlargement of fixed-size fonts to enlarge those fonts with ease.

178. The site provides at least one style sheet for printing.

To allow content to be printed in a form that is appropriate to the medium

179. The content of each page can be printed without navigation blocks.

To improve the readability and the relevance of the printed content

To streamline the space used by the printed content and save paper

180. A generic font family is listed as the last alternative in font family lists.

To enable your content to display correctly, even when the planned fonts don’t exist on a user’s system.

181. Content is presented with sufficient contrast to its background.

To provide good readability of your content

To limit the mental load while reading

182. Words are capitalized for decorative purposes by means of styles.

To enable cutting-and-pasting of content, regardless of any all-caps formatting.

To simplify the adaptation of formatting to users with trouble reading texts inall caps.

183. Styles do not justify the text.

To simplify reading onthe screen, especially for people with dyslexia

184. Content is only designated by its shape or its position on the screen.

To allow users to understand the information without having access to the visual medium or when its rendering has been altered.

185. The identity of third-parties involved in transactions is provided

To give users information about the third-party providers involved in their transactions.

186. The privacy policy can be reached from any page

To give users access to the conditions under which their personal data are conserved

187. The site provides a way to reinitialise a password if it's lost, stolen or forgotten

To allow users to access their accounts, even if they have lost their passwords.

To simplify user account management.

To boost security, by preventing the storage of passwords that are unencrypted so they can be re-sent to their users.

188. Passwords can be chosen and changed by the user

To allow users to choose personalized passwords.

To avoid users struggling to remember their passwords every time they log in.

189. User passwords allow graphic characters from the ASCII table.

To foster high password security.

190. There is a mechanism that informs users of their chosen password’s level of security.

To inform users of the level of security of their selected passwords and, therefore, the risk of being hacked.

191. Security certificates are signed and valid.

To allow users to check the certificate’s validity and to contribute to transactional security.

192. Sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in URLs.

To prevent sensitive data from being made public or stored unencrypted at any stage in accessing a page (ISP, proxy, web server, browser history, third-party services, etc.).

To allow users to enter sensitive data, safe in the knowledge that they will be protected and kept confidential.

193. Sensitive data are transmitted securely and are identified as such.

To reassure users.

To allow users to enter sensitive data, safe in the knowledge that they will be protected.

To minimize the risk of fraudulent use of user data.

194. The headers sent by the server disable automatic detection of each resource’s MIME type.

To reduce the risk of downloading dangerous hidden content.

195. The server indicates each resource’s MIME type.

To reduce the risk of downloading dangerous hidden content.

196. Information is provided on transaction security.

To inform users about the security of exchanges of sensitive data.

197. The purpose of cookies, and the consequences of refusing them, are explained to users.

To inform users about the use of cookies.

To explain their role and their purpose.

198. The process for accessing and modifying personal data is explained.

To inform users of how their personal data will be used.

To boost confidence in the site or service.

To simplify the management of requests related to personal data.

199. Account creation is subject to a confirmation process.

To reduce the risk of users being registered without their knowledge.

200. Accounts can be created without the need to use a third-party identification system.

To let users choose whether or not they want to use a third-party service.

To provide an alternate means of access to the service.

To provide a means of access under the control of the service’s administrators.

To limit your dependence on a third party, whose policies and technical and sales strategy will undoubtedly change over time.

201. Accounts and subscriptions opened online can also be closed online.

To spare the user complicated procedures in order to leave the service.

To let the user know, right off the bat, that they won’t be trapped into the service.

To cut the cost of user account management.

To boost confidence in the site or service.

To improve your reputation and reduce the risk of bad press.

202. The server does not send lists of files in directories that don’t have index pages.

To prevent the display of lists of files contained in a directory.

To improve the server’s security.

To reduce the risk of intrusion

203. The server sends activation information for protection against cross-site scripting.

To reduce the risk of downloading dangerous hidden content.

204. The server sends information that indicates which domains are allowed to embed its pages in frames.

To reduce the risk of your content being used in misleading ways.

205. The website offers a security mechanism that limits the sources of its content.

To reduce the risk of executing or serving content that is undesirable or that comes from an unauthorized source.

206. The server sends information to enable content caching.

To speed up the display of content and enable a smoother navigation experience.

To reduce bandwidth costs.

207. The server sends a 404 HTTP error code for resources not found.

To enable the automated detection of incorrect URLs.

To send reliable information to the browser.

208. The server sends a personalized 404 error page.

To inform users of the error encountered, of the server’s continuing operation, and to verify any problems with their connectivity.

209. The server sends a personalized 403 “Forbidden” error page.

To reassure users that they are still on the same website.

To allow the webmaster to provide guidance to your users.

To inform users of the error encountered, of the server’s continuing operation, and to confirm the problem is not with their connectivity.

210. The main navigation menu is displayed on personalized error pages.

To save users from any interruption in their navigation, landing on dead-end pages, or being forced to use their browser’s Back button.

211. The server compresses content, if the client accepts compressed content.

To improve the speed of the page’s rendering.

To reduce bandwidth costs.

212. Headers sent by the server contain information about the character set employed.

To allow the browser to choose the right character encoding to display the page.

213. The server respects the preferred language order specified in the user agents.

To serve pages in the desired language.

214. Style sheets are minified.

To minimize the quantity of data for users to download.

To improve performance.

215. Scripts are minified.

To speed up the display of your pages.

To improve performance.

To reduce the quantity of data to download.

216. Script functions are placed in external files.

To minimize the quantity of data for users to download.

To improve performance.

217. The addresses of the site and its subdomains work with and without the “www” prefix.

To allow users to reach the site’s homepage, even if they forget to enter the “www” prefix.

218. The source codes of syndication feeds indicate their update intervals.

To allow users to configure the frequency at which their tools check the syndication feed.

To reduce server load.

219. Syndication feeds can be detected by user agents.

To allow browsers to indicate, in their interfaces, the presence of a syndication feed associated with the current page

220. Hyperlinks in syndication feeds are absolute.

To ensure the reliability of links when content is reused.

221. The site provides at least one link to each syndication feed.

To allow users to easily subscribe to syndication feeds.

222. Cells in data tables are linked to their headers.

To allow technical aids to return the information contained in data tables in a comprehensible way, by informing users of the logical relationships between the table’s content and headers

223. Titles are provided for any data tables.

To allow users of technical aids (like screen readers) to easily identify the nature of the information provided in a table.

224. Linearizing layout tables does not impede the understanding of the content.

To supply content that is understandable to users whose user agents or technical aids (screen readers) cannot reconstruct the formatting that was initially defined by a table.

225. Data tables are not replaced by images.

To give users access to tables that are exploitable by their user agents and that can be reproduced in a way that will always be understandable.

226. Data tables are not simulated using styled text.

To give users access to tables that are exploitable by their user agents and that can be reproduced in a way that will always be understandable.

RECOMMENDATIONS

R1. If content is not accessible, an accessible version is provided.

R2. A long description, correctly associated, complements the alternative of complex images.

R3. Audio captchas can be paused.

R4. The page's source code includes no error in either the tree of the document or the syntax of tags and attributes.

R5. The page's source code is valid according to the chosen grammar.

R6. Native semantic elements are favoured.

R7. Main regions of the page are identified in the source code.

R8. Quotes are tagged in an appropriate way in the source code.

R9. Real dimensions of images are indicated in the source code.

R10. Contents and services remain available when scripts are disabled.

R11. The site does not use any technique to block or hinder the display or the reading of the source code.

R12. The site does not use any technique to block the use of native functions of the user agents.

R13. Each article author is identifiable.

R14. Sources legitimize the informations or their authors.

R15. The identity of the translator is provided.

R16. Editorial content is associated with a publication date or period, if required.

R17. The date of updating of the contractual contents is provided.

R18. The voting systems, notes and polls indicate the number of voters, the period and the mode of measurement.

R19. The ortho-typographical rules of the text language are respected.

R20. The content of the pages do not contain any hidden keywords.

R21. The display of advertising or sponsored content does not automatically change the layout.

R22. is indicated

R23. Data tables are structured into internal PDF documents.

R24. Ordered and unordered lists are structured into internal PDF documents.

R25. Images have text alternative into internal PDF documents.

R26. PDF documents can be linearized.

R27. A short text alternative describes the purpose of synchronized sound, visual, animated and synchronized media.

R28. Multimedia content is subtitled.

R29. Each video content has an audio description.

R30. The user is notified if his keyboard is in caps lock mode when entering a case-sensitive field.

R31. The position of the labels and fields is uniform in each form.

R32. Form validation on the client side is also done on the server side.

R33. The ability to submit a form pressing the enter key on the keyboard is not altered.

R34. The activation link of the contextual help to a form field is visually attached to the label of that field.

R35. The information concerning site trafic and audience are accompanied by the period covered and the method of measurement.

R36. The syntax of the URLs is consistent throughout the site.

R37. Only one set of identifiers is required to access all the services offered.

R38. Titles, labels and alternative content are translated into the language of the page.

R39. The forms and associated messages are written in a single language.

R40. The original version of the translated contents is indicated.

R41. Pages whose content is derived from an automatic translation are reported as such.

R42. The content's text direction is indicated when it differs from default.

R43. The pages contain cross-links (alternatives to menu navigation)

R44. Each page's source code contains relative links to the author, the reproduction rights, the home page and the site map.

R45. The content blocks displayed individually at the request of the user can be opened at one time.

R46. Content scrolling does not cause interstitial content to automatically display.

R47. Each search result is accompanied by an excerpt of the content.

R48. The user can choose the number of search results displayed per page.

R49. Text alternatives, labels, and link labels with identical functions are consistent throughout the site.

R50. Access to each timed-based content can be paused or extended.

R51. The recipient field of the newsletter includes only the recipient's e-mail.

R52. Letter spacing is done only with CSS styles.

R53. The character size change devices proposed by the site act on the entire page.

R54. Inline styles are only used if they can not be externalized.

R55. Text content can still be read when text is increased twice in the browser.

R56. Thumbnails are not bigger images that were resized on the client side.

R57. The site does not impose flashing contents.

R58. The order or the creation of account does not cause automatic inscription to a newsletter.

R59. The contents of submitted forms are filtered to avoid injections.

R60. The user can change his choices regarding cookies at any time.

R61. Any collection of personal information is explained or justified.

R62. The server is configured not to return information about the versions of the software and languages used.

R63. The server sends a 301 HTTP code for the permanently changed address.

R64. The site does not use user-agent detection.

R65. Scripts are not duplicated.

R66. The date and time of the server are correct.

R67. Scripts are called after the content.

R68. The server sends personalised error pages.

R69. The number of HTTP requests is optimized.

R70. The site does not have complex data tables.